In 2010, Walter Álvarez, the renowned geologist, led a seminar held at the Osservatorio Geologico di Coldigioco (Geological Observatory of Coldigioco). He brought a small group of big historians just outside of Gubio, Italy, to one of the places where there is a thin line of iridium in a mountain side. This iridium provides evidence that tells us about the end of the non-avian dinosaurs 65 million years ago and the opening for mammals to evolve into a variety of species, including humans.

After the group observed the K-T boundary just outside of Gubbio, we walked around the town for a few hours. Perhaps this image gives a taste of Gubbio's charms.

Back at Coldigioco, Álvarez also explained how those same mountains had greatly influenced Italian and European history and culture. He demonstrated how the human past is embedded in a much longer global and universal past.  By then, everyone there agreed it was time to establish the IBHA.

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