For anyone who has not read the following books on Big History, everyone is encouraged to read:

Brown, Cynthia Stokes (2007).Big History: From the Big Bang to the present. New York: The New Press.
Chaisson, Eric (2006).Epic of Evolution: Seven ages of the cosmos. New York: Columbia University Press.
Christian, David (2004).Maps of Time: An Introduction to Big History. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Rodrigue, Barry, Leonid Grinin, Andrey Korotayev, co-editors, From Big Bang to Galactic Civilizations: A Big History Anthology. Delhi: Primus Books, 2015–2016. Three-volumes, series ISBN: 978-93- 84082-45- 1.
  Volume I,Our Place in the Universe: An Introduction to Big History. Delhi: Primus Books, 2015. ISBN 978-93- 84082-45- 1
  Volume II,Education and Understanding: Big History around the World. Delhi: Primus Books, 2016. ISBN 978-93- 84082-73- 4.
  Volume III,The Ways that Big History Works: Cosmos, Life, Society, and our Future. Delhi: Primus Books, 2016. ISBN 978-93- 84082-74- 1
Spier, Fred (2015).Big History and the Future of Humanity, Second Edition. Chichester, West Sussex, U.K., Malden, MA, Wiley-Blackwell.

Selected Works on Big History

The IBHA seeks to provide a wide range of views on big history, but cannot be held responsible for any of the views expressed in the literature listed.

Big History:
A Working Bibliography
of References, Films & Internet Sites

Assembled by Barry Rodrigue & Fred Spier


Works on Aspects of Big History

  • Cosmology & Planetary Studies
  • Physical Sciences
  • Earth & Atmospheric Sciences
  • Life Sciences
  • Ecology
  • Human Social Sciences
  • Economics, Technology & Energy
  • Historiography
  • Philosophy
  • Popular Journalism
  • Creative Writing
  • Internet & Fim Resources on Big History

    Books & Articles about Big History

    Adams, Fred; Greg Laughlin. 1999. The Five Ages of the Universe: Inside the Physics of Eternity. New York: The Free Press.

    Alvarez, Walter; P. Claeys, and A. Montanari. 2009. Time-Scale Construction and Periodizing in Big History: From the Eocene-Oligocene Boundary to All of the Past. Geological Society of America, Special Paper # 452: 115.

    Ashrafi, Babak. 2007. Big History? Positioning the History of Science, pp. 711, Kostas Gavroglu and J?gen Renn (editors). Dordrecht: Springer.

    Asimov, Isaac. 1987. Beginnings: The Story of Origins of Mankind, Life, the Earth, the Universe. New York, Berkeley Books.

    Aunger, Robert. 2007. Major Transitions in Big History. Technological Forecasting and Social Change 74 (8): 11371163.

    2007. A Rigorous Periodization of Big History. Technological Forecasting and Social Change 74 (8): 11641178.

    Benjamin, Craig. 2004. Beginnings and Endings (Chapter 5). Palgrave Advances: World History, pp. 90111, M. Hughes-Warrington (editor). London and New York: Palgrave/Macmillan.

    2009. The Convergence of Logic, Faith and Values in the Modern Creation Myth. Evolutionary Epic: Sciences Story and Humanitys Response, C. Genet, B. Swimme, R. Genet, and L. Palmer (editors). Los Angeles: Collins Foundation Press.

    Brown, Cynthia Stokes. 2007. Big History: From the Big Bang to the Present, New York: New Press.

    2009. Why Arent More People Teaching Big History? Evolutionary Epic: Sciences Story and Humanitys Response, C. Genet, B. Swimme, R. Genet and L. Palmer (editors). Los Angeles: Collins Foundation Press.

    Bryson, Bill. 2003. A Short History of Nearly Everything. London: Random House.

    Burke III, Edmund (Terry); David Christian and Ross Dunn. World History: The Big Eras: A Compact History of Humankind for Teachers and Students. Los Angeles: National Center for History in the Schools, University of California, Los Angeles, 2009.

    Capra, Fritjof. 1982. The Turning Point: Science, Society and the Rising Culture. New York: Simon & Schuster.

    Chaisson, Eric. 1977. The Scenario of Cosmic Evolution. Harvard Magazine, November/December, pp. 2133.

    1981. Cosmic Dawn: The Origins of Matter and Life. Boston: Little, Brown.

    1982. The Broadest View of the Biggest Picture: An Essay on Radiation, Matter, Life. Harvard Magazine, January/February, pp. 2125.

    1987. The Life Era: Cosmic Selection and Conscious Evolution. New York: Norton.

    1998. Universe: An Evolutionary Approach to Astronomy. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall.

    1998. The Cosmic Environment for the Growth of Complexity. Biosystems 46: 1319.

    2001. Cosmic Evolution: The Rise of Complexity in Nature. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

    2003. A unifying concept for astrobiology. International Journal of Astrobiology 2 (2): 91101.

    2004. Complexity: An Energetics Agenda. Complexity 9 (3): 1421.

    2006. Epic of Evolution: Seven Ages of the Cosmos. New York: Columbia University Press.

    2008. Long-term global heating from energy usage. EOS, Transactions of the American Geophysical Union 89 (28): 253254.

    2009 (April). The heat to come... New Scientist #2702: 2425.

    Christian, David. 1991. The Case for Big History. The Journal of World History 2 (2): 223238 (

    2004. Maps of Time: An Introduction to Big History. Berkeley: University of California Press. Translations into Spanish (2005) and Chinese (2007).

    2008. This Fleeting World: A Short History of Humanity. Great Barrington: Berkshire Publishing. Also published in Korean.

    2008. Big History: The Big Bang, Life on Earth, and the Rise of Humanity (48 half-hour lectures for The Teaching Company).

    2009. The Evolutionary Epic and the Chronometric Revolution. The Evolutionary Epic: Sciences Story and Humanitys Response, pp. 9199, Cheryl Genet, Russell Genet, Brian Swimme, Linda Palmer, Linda Gibler (editors). Santa Margarita, California: Collins Foundation Press.

    2009. History and Science after the Chronometric Revolution. Cosmos & Culture: Cultural Evolution in a Cosmic Context, pp. 441462, J. Steven Dick and L. Mark Lupisella (editors).

    2009. Big History: The longest dur?. ?terreichische Zeitschrift f? Geschichtswissenschaften, 20. Jg., Band 2, pp. 91106. Special issue on Global History, Peer Vries (editor).

    2010. The Return of Universal History. History and Theory 49: 526. (Forthcoming).

    Christian, David; Cynthia Brown and Craig Benjamin. 2011. Between Nothing and Everything: Big History. Boston: McGraw-Hill. (Forthcoming).

    Cloud, Preston. 1978. Cosmos, Earth and Man: A Short History of the Universe. New Haven: Yale University Press.

    1988. Oasis in Space: Earth History from the Beginning. New York, W.W. Norton & Company.

    Davies, Paul. 1995. Are we Alone? New York: HarperCollins Publishers, Inc.

    2006. The Goldilocks Enigma. London: Allen Lane.

    Dean, John. 2009. Looking for Great Big History Books. FindLaw: (

    Delsemme, Armand. 1998. Our Cosmic Origins: From the Big Bang to the Emergence of Life and Intelligence. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Dick, J. Steven; L. Mark Lupisella (editors). 2009. Cosmos & Culture: Cultural Evolution in a Cosmic Context. National Aeronautics and Space Administration, SP-4802.

    Drees, Willem. 1996. Van Niets tot Nu: Een wetenschappelijk scheppingsverhaal. Kampen: Uitgeverij Kok.

    2002. Creation: From Nothing until Now. London: Routledge.

    Duncan; Todd; Craig Tyler. 2009. Your Cosmic Context: An Introduction to Modern Cosmology. San Francisco: Pearson Addison Wesley.

    Elias, Norbert. 1992. Time: An Essay. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.

    Ellis, William. 2011. A Gaian Paradigm. Bloomington: Xlibris.

    Ferris, Timothy, 1989. Coming of Age in the Milky Way. New York: Morrow.

    Fernlund, Kevin. 2009. To Think Like a Star: The American West, Modern Cosmology, and Big History. Montana: The Magazine of Western History 59: 2344.

    Gehrels, Tom. 2007. Survival through Evolution: From Multiverse to Modern Society. Charleston: BookSurge Publishing.

    2009. The Cosmological Foundation of Our World, Seen in a Revised History of our Universe. University of Arizona, Tucson: (

    Gell-Mann, Murray. 1994. The Quark and the Jaguar: Adventures in the Simple and the Complex. New York: W.H. Freeman & Company.

    Genet, Cheryl; Brian Swimme, Russell Genet and Linda Palmer (editors). 2009. The Evolutionary Epic: Sciences Story and Humanitys Response. Santa Margarita: Collins Foundation Press. 

    Grinin, Leonid; Andrey Korotayev. 2010. Evolutionary Megaparadigm: Potential, Problems, Perspectives. Evolution: Cosmic, Biological, and Social, Leonid Grinin and others (editors), Volgograd: Uchitel.

    Hendrickson, Brandon. 2010. Organic Spiral History: A Proposal. Seattle: Social & Cultural Foundations of Education Program, University of Washington. Unpublished graduate paper (EDC 1566).

    Hoyle, Fred; Chandra Wickramasinghe. 1993, 1996. Our Place in the Cosmos: The Unfinished Revolution. London: Phoenix.

    Jantsch, Eric. 1980. The Self-Organizing Universe: Scientific and Human Implications of the Emerging Paradigm of Evolution. Oxford: Pergamon Press.

    Jastrow, R.; Michael Rampino. 2008. Origins of Life in the Universe. Cambridge University Press.

    Kauffman, Stuart. 1993. The Origins of Order: Self-Organization and Selection in Evolution. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    1995. At Home in the Universe: The Search for Laws of Complexity. London: Viking.

    Kutter, G. Siegfried. 1987. The Universe and Life: Origins and Evolution. Cambridge (Massachusetts): James and Bartlett.

    Lerner, Eric. 2004. Bucking the Big Bang. New Scientist #2448: 20.

    Lesch, Harald; Harald Zaun. 2008. Die k?zeste Geschichte allen Lebens: Eine Reportage ?er 13,7 Milliarden Jahre Werden und Vergehen. Munich: Piper Verlag.

    Levy, David (editor). 2000. The Scientific American Book of the Cosmos. New York: St. Martin Press.

    Lewin, Roger. 1993. Complexity: Life at the Edge of Chaos. London: J.M. Dent, Limited.

    Life in the Universe. 1994. Scientific American 271 (4), October 1994. Published, 1995, as Life in The Universe: Scientific American Special Issue. New York: W.H. Freeman & Company.

    Lineweaver, Charles; Yeshe Fenner and Brad Gibson. 2004. The Galactic Habitable Zone and the Age Distribution of Complex Life in the Milky Way. Science 303 (2): 5962.

    Lloyd, Christopher. What on Earth Happened?: The Complete Story of the Planet, Life, and People from the Big Bang to the Present Day. London: Bloomsbury, 2008.

    May, Brian; Patrick Moore, Chris Lintott. 2006. Bang! The Complete History of the Universe. Bristol: Carlton Books.

    Mears, John. 1986. Evolutionary Process: An Organizing Principle for General Education. The Journal of General Education 37 (4): 113125.

    2005. Connections and Continuities: Integrating World History into Longer Analytical Frameworks. Historically Speaking 6 (5): 3134.

    2009. Implications of the Evolutionary Epic for the Study of Human History. The Evolutionary Epic: Sciences Story and Humanitys Response, pp. 135144, Cheryl Genet and others (editors). Santa Margarita: Collins Foundation Press.

    Morowitz, Harold. 2002. The Emergence of Everything: How the World Became Complex. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    Morrison, Philip; Phylis Morrison and The Office of Charles and Ray Eames. 1994. Powers of Ten: About the Relative Size of Things in the Universe. New York: W.H. Freeman & Company.

    Nazaretyan, Akop. 2004. Civilization Crises within the Context of Big (Universal) History: Self-Organization, Psychology, and Futorology (in Russian). Moscow: Mir-Publishers.

    2005. Western and Russian Traditions of Big History: A Philosophical Insight. Journal for General Philosophy of Science 36: 6380.

    2009. Technology, Psychology and Catastrophes: On the Evolution of Non-Violence in Human History. Social Evolution & History 8 (2): 102132.

    Niele, Frank. 2005. Energy: Engine of Evolution. Amsterdam: Elsevier, Shell Global Solutions.

    Neprimerov, N. 1992. Mirozdanie [The Universe]. Kazan: Kazan State University.

    Nottale, Laurent; Jean Chaline, Pierre Grou. 2000. Les arbres de levolution: Universe, vie, soci??. Paris, Hachette.

    Potter, Christopher. 2009. You Are Here: A Portable History of the Universe. New York, Harper Collins.

    Prantzos, Nikos. 1998, 2000. Our Cosmic Future: Humanitys Fate in the Universe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Preiss, Byron (editor). The Universe. New York: Bantam Books.

    Prigogine, Ilya; Isabelle Stengers. 1984. Order out of Chaos: Mans New Dialogue with Nature. London: Heinemann.

    Primack, Joel; Nancy Abrams. 2006. The View from the Center of the Universe: Discovering Our Extraordinary Place in the Cosmos. New York: Riverhead Books.

    Rees, Martin. 1997. Before the Beginning: Our Universe and Others. London: Simon & Schuster.

    Reeves, Hubert. 1991. Hour of Our Delight: Cosmic Evolution, Order, and Complexity. New York: W.H. Freeman & Company.

    Reeves, Hubert; Jo? de Rosnay, Yves Coppens, Dominique Simonnet. 1996. La Plus Belle Histoire du Monde: Les secrets de nos origins. Paris: Editions du Seuil.

    1998. Origins: Cosmos, Earth and Mankind. New York: Arcade Publishing.

    Reijnders, Lucas; Bert De Reuver, Egbert Tellegen (editors). 2007. Toekomst in het Groot (Big Futures). Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.

    Rodrigue, Barry. 2010. Big History, Civilization and Human Survival. Thought & Action 26.

    Rodrigue, Barry; Daniel Stasko. 2009. A Big History Directory, 2009: An Introduction. World History Connected 6 (3).

    2010. Changing the Future with the Past: Global Enlightenment through Big History. The Journal of Globalization Studies 1 (2).

    Scientific American. 1998 (Spring). Magnificent Cosmos: Exploring the Universe, From our Solar Neighborhood to Beyond Distant Galaxies. Scientific American 9 (1).

    Shklovsky, Joseph. 1962. A5;5==0O, 687=L, @07C< (Universe, Life, Intelligence). Moscow: Academy of Sciences.

    Shklovsky, Joseph; Carl Sagan. 1966. Intelligent Life in the Universe. New York: Random House.

    Snooks, Graeme. 2005. Big History or Big Theory? Uncovering the Laws of Life. Social Evolution & History 4 (1): 160188.

    2005. Exploring the Horizons of Big History (Guest editor, special issue, Social Evolution & History 4 (1).

    2010. Ark of the Sun: The Improbable Voyage of Life. (Forthcoming).

    Spier, Fred. 1996. The Structure of Big History: From the Big Bang until Today, Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.

    1998. Big History: Was die Geschichte im Innersten zusammenh?t. Darmstadt: Primus Verlag.

    1999. Geschiedenis in het Groot: Een alomvattende visie. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.

    1999. !B@C:BC@0 >4LH>9 AB>@88 (The Structure of Big History). )!"+ # ! !", (Social Sciences Today) 5. Moscow: Russian Academy of Sciences, pp. 152163.

    2002. The Apollo 8 Earthrise Photo. Amsterdam, Institute for Interdisciplinary Studies.

    2005. The Ghost of Big History is Roaming the Earth. History & Theory 44: 253264.

    2005. The Small History of the Big History Course at the University of Amsterdam. World History Connected 2 (2).

    2005. How Big History Works: Energy Flows and Rise and Demise of Complexity. Social Evolution & History 4 (1): 87135 (

    2006. Why Big History? Philosophy, Science & Humanities. Moscow: Russian Ministry of Education 8: 104106.

    2009. Big History: The Emergence of an Interdisciplinary Science? World History Connected 6 (3).

    2010. Big History & the Future of Humanity. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell. (To be translated into Spanish and Chinese).

    Stasko, Daniel; Barry Rodrigue. 2010. A Preliminary Look at Big History Today. Social Evolution & History 9 (2): 135165.

    2010. Courses of Big History in the Universities of the World. AB>@8G5A:0O ?A8E>;>38O 8 A>F8>;>38O 8AB>@88 (Historical Psychology & Sociology) 3 (2).

    Swimme, Brian; Thomas Berry. 1992. The Universe Story: From the Primordial Flaring Forth to the Ecozoic Era: A Celebra?ion of the Unfolding of the Cosmos. San Francisco: Harper Collins.

    Trefil, James. 1989. Reading the Mind of God: In Search of the Principle of Universality. New York: Charles Scribners Sons.

    V?ez, Antonio. 1998. Del big bang al Homo sapiens. Medell?: Editorial Universidad de Antioquia.

    Verburgh, Kris. 2007. FANTASTISCH! Over het universum in ons hoofd. Antwerp: Houtekiet.

    Ward, Peter; Donald Brownlee. 2000, 2004. Rare Earth: Why Complex Life is Uncommon in the Universe. New York, Copernicus Books.


Works that Anticipated Big History

Baron dHolbach, Paul Henri Thiry [pseudonym: Jean Baptiste de Mirabaud]. 1770. Syst?e de la nature. Ou des loix du monde physique & du monde moral.

1868, 2001. The System of Nature or Laws of the Moral and Physical World. Kitchener, Ontario: Batoche Books.

Chambers, Robert. 1844, 1994. Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation. Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation and Other Evolutionary Writings, James Secord (editor). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Darwin, Charles. 1839, 1989. Voyage of the Beagle: Charles Darwins Journal of Researches, Janet Browne and Michael Neve (editors). London: Penguin Books.

1859, 1985. The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life (original title: On the Origin of Species ... etc.). Harmondsworth: Penguin Books.

1871, 2004. The Descent of Man: Selection in Relation to Sex (James Moore & Adrian Desmond (editors). Harmondsworth: Penguin Books.

1881. The Formation of Vegetable Mould, through the Action of Worms. London: John Murray.

Descartes, Ren? 1664, 1977. Le Monde, ou, Trait?de la lumi?e. New York: Abaris Books.

Diderot, Denis; Jean le Rond dAlembert. 17511772. LEncyclop?ie, ou Dictionnaire Raisonn?des Sciences, des Arts et des M?iers, par un soci??de gens de lettres. Paris : Briasson, David, Le Breton, Durand. 17 volumes.

Hegel, Georg. 1817, 2000. Enzyklop?ie der philosophischen Wissenschaften im Grundrisse. Hamburg, Felix Meiner Verlag.

Helferich, Gerard. 2004. Humboldts Cosmos: Alexander von Humboldt and the Latin American Journey That Changed the Way We See the World. New York: Gotham Books.

Humboldt, Alexander von. 18451862. Kosmos: Entwurf einer physischen Weltbeschreibung. Stuttgart and T?ingen, J. G. Cottascher Verlag.

18141825, 1995. Personal Narrative of a Journey to the Equinoctial Regions of the New Continent (Abridged and translated with introduction by Jason Wilson; historical introduction by Malcolm Nicolson). London: Penguin Books.

1845, 1997. Cosmos, Volume 1 (Foundations of Natural History). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Hume, David. 1757. The Natural History of Religion. London: A. & H. Bradlaugh Bonner.

Kant, Immanuel. 1755. Allgemeine Naturgeschichte und Theorie Des Himmels oder Versuch von der Verfassung und dem mechanischen Ursprunge des ganzen Weltgeb?des, nach Newtonischen Grunds?zen abgehandelt. K?igsberg: Petersen (anonymously published).

1784, 1963. On History (edited with introduction by Lewis Beck). Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill Company, Inc. (Original title: Idee zu einer allgemeinen Geschichte in weltb?gerlicher Absicht).

Loon, Hendrik van. 1921. The Story of Mankind. New York: H. Liveright.

Malthus, Thomas. 1798, 1992. An Essay on the Principle of Population (Cambridge Texts in the History of Political Thought). Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.

Newton, Sir Isaac. 1730, 1979. Opticks. New York: Dover Publications.

Pannekoek, Anton. 1909, 1980. Darwinisme en marxisme. Beverwijk: Brochure 1, Herdrukken 1/3, Groep Radenkommunisme.

Ranke, Leopold von. 1888. Vorwort. Weltgeschichte, Neunter Theil, zweite Abtheilung. Leipzig: Verlag von Dunder & Humblot.

Wells, Herbert. 1920. The Outline of History: Being a Plain History of Life and Mankind. New York: Garden City Publishing.


Works on Aspects of Big History

Cosmology & Planetary Studies

Barrow, John. 1995. The Artful Universe. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Beatty, J. Kelly; Carolyn Collins Petersen, Andrew Chaikin, (editors). 1999. The New Solar System, Fourth Edition. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Sky Publishing.

Boeke, Kees. 1957. Cosmic View: The Universe in 40 Jumps. New York: John Day Company.

Chaikin, Andrew; Victoria Kohl. 2009. Voices from the Moon: Apollo Astronauts Describe their Lunar Experiences. New York: Viking Studio.

Chaisson, Eric; Steve McMillan. 2008. Astronomy Today, Sixth Edition. San Francisco: Pearson Addison Wesley.

Chandler, David. 2006 (28 November). New World Order. New Scientist #2579: 4043.

Chown, Marcus. 2005 (2 July). Did the Big Bang Really Happen? New Scientist #2506: 30.

2007 (27 September). Rival Theory Fights Back Against Dark Matter. New Scientist #2623: 1213.

2008 (23 August). Land of the Rising Suns. New Scientist #2670: 4043.

2009 (22 August). O Others, Where Art Thou? New Scientist #2722: 3739.

Cortright, Edgar (editor). 1975. Apollo Expeditions to the Moon. Washington, DC: NASA SP-350.

Davies, Paul. 1994. The Last Three Minutes: Conjectures about the Ultimate Fate of the Universe. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson.

Daviss, Bennett. 2007 (8 December). Our Solar Future. New Scientist #2633: 3237.

Ellis, John; B.D. Fields, D.N. Schramm. 1996. Geological Isotope Anomalies as Signatures of Nearby Supernovae. Astrophysical Journal 470: 12271236.

Feng Tian; Owen Toon, Alexander Pavlov, H. De Sterck. 2005. A Hydrogen-Rich Early Earth Atmosphere. Science 308 (5724): 10141017.

Fields, Brian. 2007. When Stars Attack! Live Undersea Radioactivities as Signatures of Nearby Supernova Explosions. Geological Society of America, Denver Annual Meeting (2831 October 2007), Paper # 218-10.

Fields, Brian; John Ellis. 1999. On Deep-Ocean 60Fe as a Fossil of a Near-Earth Supernova. New Astronomy 4 (6): 419430.

Firestone, Richard; A. West, J. Kennett, and others. 2007. Evidence for an Extraterrestrial Impact 12,900 Years Ago that Contributed to the Megafaunal Extinctions and the Younger Dryas Cooling. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 104 (41): 1601616021).

Getman, Konstantin; Eric Feigelson, Kevin Luhman, Aurora Sicilia-Aguilar, Junfeng Wang, Gordon Garmire. 2009. Protoplanetary Disk Evolution Around the Triggered Star-Forming Region Cepheus B. The Astrophysical Journal 699: 14541472.

Glasby, Geoffrey. 2006. Abiotic Origin of Hydrocarbons: An Historical Overview. Resource Geology 56 (1): 8598.

Gonzalez, Guillermo; Jay Richards. 2004. The Privileged Planet: How our Place in the Cosmos is Designed for Discovery. Washington, DC: Regnery Publishing.

Hammer, F.; M. Puech, L. Chemin, H. Flores, M. Lehnert. 2007. The Milky Way, an Exceptionally Quiet Galaxy: Implications for the Formation of Spiral Galaxies. The Astrophysical Journal 662 (1): 322334.

Kasting, James; Daniel Whitmire, Ray Reynolds. 1993. Habitable Zones around Main Sequence Stars. Icarus 101: 108128.

Knie, K.; G. Korschinek, T. Faestermann, C. Wallner, J. Scholten, W. Hillebrandt. 1999. Indication for Supernova Produced 60Fe Activity on Earth. Physical Review Letters 83 (1): 1821.

Knie, K.; G. Korschinek, T. Faestermann, E. Dorfi, G. Rugel, A. Wallner. 2004. 60Fe Anomaly in a Deep-Sea Manganese Crust and Implications for a Nearby Supernova Source. Physical Review Letters 93 (17): 171103-1171103-4.

Mishurov, Yu; I. Zenina, A. Dambis, A. MelNik, A. Rastorguev. 1997. Is the Sun located near the corotation circle? Astronomy and Astrophysics 323: 775780.

Muir, Hazel. 2005 (14 May). Milky Way: There is No Place Like Home. New Scientist #2499: 30.

New Scientist. 2007 (8 September ). 50 years in Space: My Favourite Photo. New Scientist, # 2620: 40.

2007 (3 November). Ancient Blast too Close for Comfort. New Scientist # 2628: 19.

Ofek, Eran; P. Cameron, M. Kasliwal, and others. 2007. SN 2006gy: An Extremely Luminous Supernova in the Galaxy NGC 1260. The Astrophysical Journal 659 (1), Part 2, L13L16.

Peterson, Ivars. 1993, 1995. Newtons Clock: Chaos in the Solar System. New York: W.H. Freeman & Company.

Raymond, Sean; Avi Mandell, Steinn Sigurdsson. 2006. Exotic Earths: Forming Habitable Worlds with Giant Planet Migration. Science 313: 14131416.

Reich, Eugenie. 2005 (19 February). Interstellar gas cloud linked to Snowball Earth. New Scientist # 2487: 9.

Shiga, David. 2006 (29 April). Gravity: Were Newton and Einstein wrong? New Scientist #2549: 52.

2007 (13 October). Supernova Shift may Distort Dark-Energy Readings. New Scientist # 2625: 14.

Semeniuk, Ivan. 2007 (511 May). Blasts from the Past. New Scientist # 2602: 4649.

Smith, Nathan; Weidong Li, Ryan Foley and others. 2007. SN 2006gy: Discovery of the Most Luminous Supernova Ever Recorded, Powered by the Death of an Extremely Massive Star like ?Carinae. The Astrophysical Journal 666 (2): 11161128.

Steinlin, Uli. 1977 (26 April). Kugelsternhaufen. Neue Z?cher Zeitung.

Tsiganis, K.; R. Gomes, A. Morbidelli, H. Levison. 2005 (26 May). Origin of the Orbital Architecture of the Giant Planets of the Solar System. Nature 435: 459461.

Weinberg, Steven. 1977, 1993. The First Three Minutes: A Modern View of the Origin of the Universe. London: Flamingo.


Physical Sciences

EcoSanRes. 2008. Closing the Loop on Phosphorus. Stockholm Environment Institute: (

Gleick, James. 1987, 1988. Chaos: Making a New Science. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books.

Muir, Hazel. 2006 (21 October). Half-Life Heresy: Accelerating Radioactive Decay. New Scientist # 2574: 3639.

Sharma, Ajay. 2004. Origin and Escalation of the Mass-Energy Equation ?E=? mc2. General Science Journal: (

Earth & Atmospheric Sciences

All?re, Claude; Stephen Scheider. 2000. The Evolution of the Earth, pp. 219226, The Scientific American Book of the Cosmos, David Levy (editor). New York: St. Martin Press.

Alvarez, Walter. 1997. T. rex and the Crater of Doom. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

2008. The Mountains of Saint Francis: The Geologic Events that Shaped Our Earth. New York: W.W. Norton and Company.

2009. The Historical Record in the Scaglia Limestone at Gubbio: Magnetic Reversals and the Cretaceous-Tertiary Mass Extinction, Sedimentology 56: 137148.

Andel, Tjeerd van. 1985, 1994. New Views on an Old Planet: A History of Global Change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Belderok, Stein. 2008. Goldilocks in Petroleum Geology. Van denkrichting veranderen, pp. 15-16, Machiel Keestra (editor). Amsterdam: Institute for Interdisciplinary Studies, University of Amsterdam.

Bradley, Raymond S. 1991. Global Changes of the Past. Boulder, Co., UCAR/Office for Interdisciplinary Earth Studies.

Bureau International des Poids et Mesures. 2006. The International System of Units (SI). Organisation Intergouvermentale de la Convention du M?re: (

Drury, Stephen. 1999. Stepping Stones: The Making of our Home World. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Graedel, T.; Paul Crutzen. 1993. Atmospheric Change: An Earth System Perspective. New York: W.H. Freeman & Company.

Hammen, T. van der; B. van Geel. 2008. Charcoal in Soils of the Aller?-Younger Dryas Transition were the Result of Natural Fires and Not Necessarily the Effect of an Extra-Terrestrial Impact. Netherlands Journal of Geosciences Geologie en Mijnbouw 87 (4): 359361.

Kennett, D.; J. Kennett, A. West and others. 2009 (2 January). Nanodiamonds in the Younger Dryas Boundary Sediment Layer. Science 323 (5910): 94.

Makarieva, A.; V. Gorshkov. 2006. Biotic Pump of Atmospheric Moisture as Driver of the Hydrological Cycle on Land. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussion 3: 26212673.

McSween Jr.; Harry. 1997. Fanfare for Earth: The Origin of Our Planet and Life. New York: St. Martins Press.

Pavlov, Alexander; Owen Toon, Anatoli Pavlov, John Bally, David Pollard. 2005. Passing through a Giant Molecular Cloud: Snowball Glaciations Produced by Interstellar Dust. Geophysical Research Letters 32 (3): 3705.

Pearce, Fred. 2009 (June). Ice on Fire. New Scientist # 2714 (24): 3033.

Perkins, Sid. 2009. The Iron Record of Earths Oxygen: Scientists are Decoding the Geological Secrets of Banded Iron Formations. Science News 175 (13): 2428.

Strahan, David. 2008 (19 January). The Great Coal Hole. New Scientist # 2639: 3841.

Strangway, David. 1970. History of the Earths Magnetic Field. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company.

Wicander, Reed; James Monroe. 1993. Historical Geology: Evolution of the Earth and Life through Time. Minneapolis: West Publishing Company.

Wood, Denis. 2004. Five Billion Years of Global Change: A History of the Land. New York: The Guildford Press, 2004.



Earth Sciences

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OBrien, Patrick. 2008. Global History for Global Citizenship. London: London School of Economics, Global History & Maritime Asia Working & Discussion Paper # 7.

Osborne, Roger; Don Tarling. 1995. The Viking Historical Atlas of the Earth. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books.

Ostrowski, Donald. 1989. The Historian and the Virtual Past. The Historian 51 (2): 201220.

Pollard, Sidney. 1981, 1992. Peaceful Conquest: The Industrialization of Europe 17601970. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Pomeranz, Kenneth. 2000. The Great Divergence: Europe, China, and the Making of the Modern World Economy. Princeton, Princeton University Press.

Pannekoek, Anton. 1953. Anthropogenesis: A Study of the Origins of Man. Amsterdam: North-Holland Publishing.

Ponting, Clive. 1992. A Green History of the World. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books.

Poole, Robert. 2008. Earthrise: How Man First Saw the Earth. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Pringle, Heather. 2007 (89 May). Firestorm from Space Wiped out Prehistoric Americans. New Scientist # 2605: 26.

Pyne, Stephen. 1982. Fire in America: A Cultural History of Wildland and Rural Fire. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

2001. Fire: A Brief History. London: The British Museum Press.

Rathje, William; Cullen Murphy. 1992. Rubbish! The Archaeology of Garbage: What our Garbage tells us about ourselves. New York: Harper Collins Publishers.

Redman, Charles. 1978. The Rise of Civilization: From Early Farmers to Urban Society in the Ancient Near East. San Francisco: W.H. Freeman & Company.

Reed, Charles (editor). 1977. Origins of Agriculture. Den Haag: Mouton Publishers.

Reed, David; Vincent Smith, Shaless Hammond, Alan Rogers, Dale Clayton. 2004. Genetic Analysis of Lice Supports Direct Contact between Modern and Archaic Humans. Public Library of Science Biology 2 (11): e340.

Reijnders, Lucas. 2006. Is Increased Energy Utilization Linked to Greater Cultural Complexity? Energy Utilization by Australian Aboriginals and Traditional Swidden Agriculturalists. Environmental Sciences 3 (3): 207220.

Renfrew, Colin; Paul Bahn. 1991. Archaeology: Theory, Methods and Practice. London: Thames & Hudson.

Roberts, John. 1976. History of the World. New York: Alfred M. Knopf.

Roberts, Neil. 1998. The Holocene: An Environmental History. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.

Roebroeks, Wil (editor). 2007. Guts and Brains: An Integrative Approach to the Hominin Record. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.

Romein, Jan Marius. 1937. De dialectiek van de vooruitgang. Bijdrage tot het ontwikkelingsbegrip in de geschiedenis. Het onvoltooid verleden: kultuurhistorische studies, pp. 964. Amsterdam: Querido.

Secord, James. 2000. Victorian Sensation: The Extraordinary Publication, Reception, and Secret Authorship of Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Sherratt, A. 1981. Plough and Pastoralism: Aspects of the Secondary Products Revolution. Pattern of the Past: Studies in Honour of David Clarke, pp. 261305, Ian Hodder, Glynn Isaac, Norman Hammond (editors). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

1996. Plate Tectonics and Imaginary Prehistories: Structure and Contingency in Agricultural Origins. The Origins and Spread of Agriculture and Pastoralism in Eurasia, pp. 130140, David Harris, (editor). London: UCL Press.

1997. Climatic Cycles and Behavioural Revolutions: The Emergence of Modern Humans and the Beginning of Farming. Antiquity 71 (272): 271287.

Smith, Bruce. 1995. The Emergence of Agriculture. New York: W.H. Freeman & Company.

Smith, M. Estellie. 2000. Trade and Trade-offs: Using Resources, Making Choices, and Taking Risks. Prospect Heights: Waveland Press.

Smith, Virginia. 2007. Clean: A History of Personal Hygiene and Purity. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Snooks, Graeme. The Dynamic Society: Exploring the Sources of Global Change, London: Routledge, 1996.

Snow, Philip. 1988. Star Raft: Chinas Encounter with Africa. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

Snow, Charles. 1959. The Two Cultures and the Scientific Revolution. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Spier, Fred. 1990. Religie in de mensheidsgeschiedenis: Naar een model van de ontwikkeling van religieuze regimes in een lange-termijnperspectief. (Religion in the History of Humankind: Toward a Model of the Development of Religious Regimes in a Long-term Perspective). Amsterdams Sociologisch Tijdschrift 16 (4): 88122.

1992. Een oud probleem: de relaties tussen mensen en het natuurlijk milieu in een lange termijnperspectief. (An Old Problem: The Relations between Humans and the Natural Environment Seen from a Long-term Perspective). De Gids 150 (2): 96108.

1994. Religious Regimes in Peru: Religion and State Development in a Long-term Perspective and the Effects in the Andean Village of Zurite. Amsterdam: Amster?am University Press.

1995. San Nicol? de Zurite: Religion and Daily Life of an Andean Village in a Chang?ng World. Amsterdam: VU University Press.

Stearns, Peter. 1993. The Industrial Revolution in World History? Boulder: Westview Press.

Stern, Fritz (editor). 1956. The Varieties of History: From Voltaire to the Present. Cleveland: Meridian Books.

Stringer, Chris; Clive Gamble. 1993. In Search of the Neanderthals. London: Thames & Hudson.

Swabe, Joanna. 1998. Animals, Disease and Human Society: Human-animal Relations and the Rise of Veterinary Medicine. London: Routledge.

Tainter, Joseph. 1988. The Collapse of Complex Societies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Thorpe, S.; R. Holder, R. Crompton. 2007. Origin of Human Bipedalism As an Adaptation for Locomotion on Flexible Branches. Science 316 (5829): 13281331.

Trefil, James. 1997. Are We Unique? A Scientist Explores the Unparalleled Intelligence of the Human Mind. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Tudge, Colin. 1995, 1996. The Day Before Yesterday: Five Million Years of Human History. London: Random House.

V?ez, Antonio. 2007. Homo Sapiens. Bogot? Villegas Editores S.A.

Smil, Vaclav. 1994. Energy in World History. Boulder: Westview Press.

Voros, Joseph. 2006. Nesting Social?nalytical Perspectives: An Approach to Macro?ocial Analysis. Journal of Futures Studies 11 (1): 121. Available at (

2007. Macro?erspectives Beyond the World System. Journal of Futures Studies 11 (3): 128. Available at (

Vos, John de. 2004. Evolution of Man: The Adaptative Radiation Model. Miscelanea en homenaje a Emiliano Aguirre, Volume 3, Paleoantropolog?, pp. 406413, Susana Rubio Jara and Enrique Baquedano P?ez (editors).

Vries, Jan de. 2008. The Industrious Revolution: Consumer Behavior and the Household Economy, 1650 to the Present. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Wallerstein, Immanuel. 1974. The Modern World-System: Capitalist Agriculture and the Origins of the European World-Economy in the Sixteenth Century. San Diego: Academic Press.

1980. Modern World System II: Mercantilism and the Consolidation of the European World?Economy, 16001750. San Diego: Academic Press.

1983. Historical Capitalism. London: Verso.

1989. The Modern World-System III: The Second Era of Great Expansion of the Capitalist World-Economy, 17301840s. New York: Academic Press.

Weber, Maximilian. 1925, 1978, 1997. Economy and Society: An Outline of Interpretive Sociology (two volumes). Berkeley: University of California Press.

1925, 1997. The Theory of Social and Economic Organization. New York: The Free Press.

1927. General Economic History. London: George Allen & Unwin.

Wenke, Robert; Deborah Olszewski. 2007. Patterns in Prehistory: Humankinds First Three Million Years (Casebooks in Criticism). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

White, L. 1959. The Evolution of Culture: The Development of Civilization to the Fall of Rome. New York: McGraw-Hill.

1975. The Concept of Cultural Systems: A Key to Understanding Tribes and Nations. New York: Columbia University Press.

Wills, Christopher. 1999. Children of Prometheus: The Accelerating Pace of Human Evolution. New York: Basic Books.

Wolf, Eric. 1966. Peasants. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall.

1982. Europe and the People without History. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Wolpoff, Milford; Rachel Caspari. 1997. Race and Human Evolution: A Fatal Attraction. New York: Simon & Schuster.


Economics, Technology & Energy

Allen, Timothy; Joseph Tainter, Thomas Hoekstra. 2003. Supply-Side Sustainability. New York: Columbia University Press.

Hubbert, M. King. 1956. Nuclear Energy and the Fossil Fuels. Houston: Shell Development Company, Publication # 95.

1971 (September). The Energy Resources of the Earth. Scientific American 225 (3): 6084.

International Energy Agency. 2007. Key World Energy Statistics 2007. Paris: International Energy Agency.

Landes, D. 1969. The Unbound Prometheus: Technological Change and Industrial Development in Western Europe from 1730 to the Present. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

1998. The Wealth and Poverty of Nations: Why Some Are So Rich and Some So Poor. New York: W.W. Norton & Company.

Lapperre, P. 1997. Sociologie en Techniek: Lange termijn wisselwerkingen tussen technologie en maatschappij [Sociology and Technology: Long-term Interactions between Technology and Society]. Eindhoven: Eindhoven University of Technology, Department of Technology Management.

MacKay, David. 2008. Sustainable EnergyWithout the Hot Air. Cambridge: UIT Cambridge. Available at (

McKenna, Phil. 2008 (19 November). Plumbing the Oceans could Bring Limitless Clean Energy. New Scientist # 2683: 2829.

Meadows, Donella; Dennis Meadows, J?gen Randers, William Behrens III. 1972. The Limits to Growth: A Report for the Club of Rome Project on the Predicament of Mankind. New York: Potomac Associates.

Meadows, Dennis. 1972. Rapport van de Club van Rome: De grenzen aan de groei. Utrecht/Antwerp: Het Spectrum, Aula 500.

Reijnders, Lucas. 2006. Energie: Van brandhout tot zonnecel. Amsterdam: Uitgeverij Van Gennep.

Schumacher, Ernst. 1973, 1989. Small Is Beautiful: Economics as if People Mattered. New York: Harper Perennial.

Tainter, Joseph; T. Allen, Amanda Little, Thomas Hoekstra. 2003. Resource Transitions and Energy Gain: Contexts of Organization. Conservation Biology 7 (3): 4, (

Trivedi, Bijal. 2007 (1 September). Toxic cocktail. New Scientist # 2619: 4447.

Turner, Graham. 2008. A Comparison of the Limits to Growth with 30 Years of Reality. Global Environmental Change 18 (3): 397411.

Scientific American. 1971 (September ). Energy and Power. Scientific American, Special Issue 225 (3).

Smil, Vaclav. 2006. Energy: A Beginners Guide. Oxford: One World Publications.

White, L. 1943. Energy and the Evolution of Culture. American Anthropologist 45: 335356.



Bloch, Marc. 1949, 1954, 1984. The Historians Craft. Manchester: Manchester University Press.

Carr, Edward. 1968. What is History? Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1961.

Collingwood, Robin. 1946, 1993. The Idea of History. Oxford, Clarendon Press.

Kitson Clark. 1967. The Critical Historian. New York: Basic Books.

Moore, R. 1997. World History. Companion to Historiography, pp. 941-959, Michael Bentley (editor). London: Routledge.

Ostrowski, Donald. 2003. Three Criteria of Historical Study:


Ravitch, Diane; Arthur Schlesinger Jr. 1996 (3 April). The New, Improved History Standards. The Wall Street Journal.

Sanderson, Stephen. 1995. Social Transformations: A General Theory of Historical Development. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.

Shipp, Thomas. 2007. Clash of World Views. New Scientist #2608: 26.

Slicher van Bath, Bernard. 1978. Geschiedenis: theorie en praktijk. Utrecht/Antwerp: Het Spectrum.

Smail, Daniel. 2005. In the Grip of Sacred History. The American Historical Review 110 (5): 13371361.

Stavrianos, Leften. 1989. Lifelines from our Past: A New World History. New York: Pantheon Books.

1971, 1995. A Global History: From Prehistory to the Present. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall.

Thomas, Jo. 1996 (3 April). Revised History Standards Defuse Explosive Issues. New York Times.

Tosh, John. 1992. The Pursuit of History: Aims, Methods & New Directions in the Study of Modern History. London: Longman.

Trefil, James. 1994. A Scientist in the City. New York: Doubleday.

Trefil, James; Robert Hazen. 1995. The Sciences: An Integrated Approach. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Waldrop, M. Mitchell. 1992, 1993. Complexity: The Emerging Science at the Edge of Order and Chaos. London: Viking.

Walsh, William. 1951. An Introduction to Philosophy of History. London: Hutchinson.

Wesseling, H. 1995. Onder historici: Opstellen over geschiedenis en geschiedschrijving. Amsterdam: Uitgeverij Bert Bakker.

Woo, Elaine. 1996 (3 April). Standards for Teaching History UnveiledAgain. Los Angeles Times.



Barrow, John; Frank Tipler. 1986. The Anthropic Cosmological Principle. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Harman, Willis. 1988. Global Mind Change. Indianapolis: Knowledge Systems, Inc.

Lange, Frits de. 1997. Gevoel voor verhoudingen: God, evolutie en ethiek. Kampen: Uitgeverij Kok.

Monod, Jacques. 1971. Chance and Necessity. New York: Alfred Knopf.

Popular Journalism

Time Magazine. 1969 (10 January). The Awesome Views from Apollo 8. Time Magazine (Atlantic edition): 29.

1969 (3 January). Nation: Men of the Year. Time Magazine: 912.

National Geographic. 2009. Energy for Tomorrow: Repowering the Planet. Special Spring Issue.

Creative Writing

Asimov, Isaac. Foundation Series.

Borman, Frank. 1969 (3 February). A Science Fiction WorldAwesome, Forlorn Beauty. Life Magazine, pp. 1920.

MacLeish, Archibald. 1968 (25 December). A Reflection: Riders on Earth Together, Brothers in Eternal Cold. New York Times.

Childrens Books

Gronek, Erica. 2010. And Then There was You&. Phoenix, Arizona: Lulu, published by the author.

Marshall, James. 1998. Goldilocks and the Three Bears: Retold and Illustrated by James Marshall. New York: Puffin Books.

Morgan, Jennifer. 2002. Born with a Bang: The Universe Tells our Cosmic Story, book 1. Dana Lynne Andersen (illustrator). Nevada City: Dawn Publications.


Internet, Radio & Film Resources on Big History

The Arrow of Time: A Linear Rendering of Forward Time.


Eric Chaisson and Dana Berry, Wright Center for Science Education, Tufts University, 2007.

Big History

Fred Spier interviewed by Marshall Poe on New Books in History.

Wikipedia: (

Big History, University of Amsterdam


Fred Spier, site manager.

Big History, Twitter Site


Fred Spier, site manager, University of Amsterdam.

Big History, University of Southern Maine

( Resource site of syllabi, web-links, essays, etc.

Barry Rodrigue, site manager, University of Southern Maine.

Big History Club, Facebook

( This is an international club for Big History students, run by the students themselves.

John Kimball (University of Southern Maine), site manager.

Big History Group Library, Zotero


Rich Blundell, site manager.

Bill Gates about Big History course

( YouTube, 22 April 2009.

Bill Gates (Microsoft Corporation) and Charlie Rose (Public Broadcasting Service).



Walter Alvarez & Roland Saekow, Earth & Planetary Science, University of California Berkeley.

Cosmic Evolution: From Big Bang to Humankind


Eric Chaisson, Wright Center for Science Education, Tufts University.


Public Broadcasting Service, 1980. This is a 13-part television series.

Carl Sagan, Ann Druyan and Steven Soter.

The Great Story: An Epic of Evolution


Connie Barlow, website manager.

The Institute of Global Dynamic Systems


Graeme Snooks, Institute of Advanced Studies, Australian National University.

An Introduction to Big History with David Christian and William H. McNeill

( YouTube broadcast, 30 December 2008.

David Christian (Macquarie University) and William McNeill (University of Chicago).

Science & Canon for Human Culture

( ). Click inside the opening slide and the use your keyboard arrows to move through the show.
Lowell Gustafson (Villanova University).

World History for Us All

( This is a web-based, pre-collegiate model curriculum incorporating Big History into World History.
Ross Dunn, project director, San Diego State University.

Zooming In & Out of History

John West, History Department, California State University San Marcos.

Marshall Poe, Fred Spier, Big History and the Future of Humanity, in New Books in History, 1 October 2010: (

Its Time For A New Narrative; Its Time For Big History, National Public Radio (USA): (


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